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By: E. Musan, M.B. B.A.O., M.B.B.Ch., Ph.D.
Deputy Director, University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Symptomatic: perinatal ischaemic�hypoxic encephalopathy; brainstem lesions (encephalitis depression definition investopedia 20 mg abilify mastercard, haemorrhage); thalamic lesions (irritation anxiety in toddlers buy generic abilify 20 mg line, vascular); medication (cocaine bipolar depression treatments order abilify with a mastercard, amphetamines); Tourette syndrome. Cross References Incontinence; Myoclonus Hypergraphia Hypergraphia is a type of increased writing exercise. It has been instructed that it ought to refer particularly to all transient increased writing exercise with a non-iterative appearance on the syntactic or lexicographemic degree (cf. Hypergraphia may be seen as part of the interictal psychosis which typically develops in sufferers with complex partial seizures from a temporal lobe (especially non-dominant hemisphere) focus, or with other non-dominant temporal lobe lesions (vascular, neoplastic, demyelinative, neurodegenerative), or psychiatric issues (schizophrenia). Cross References Automatic writing behaviour; Hyperreligiosity; Hyposexuality Hyperhidrosis Hyperhidrosis is excessive (unphysiological) sweating. Localized hyperhidrosis brought on by meals (gustatory sweating) may result from aberrant connections between nerve fibres supplying sweat glands and salivary glands. Other causes of hyperhidrosis include mercury poisoning, phaeochromocytoma, and tetanus. Transient hyperhidrosis contralateral to a big cerebral infarct in the absence of autonomic dysfunction has also been described. Symptoms may be helped (but not abolished) by low dose anticholinergic medication, clonidine, or propantheline. Cross References Ballism, Ballismus; Chorea, Choreoathetosis; Dysarthria Hyperlexia Hyperlexia has been used to refer to the power to learn simply and fluently. Patients with hypermetamorphosis may explore compulsively and contact everything of their environment. This is one element of the environmental dependency syndrome and may be associated with other forms of utilization behaviour, imitation behaviour (echolalia, echopraxia), and frontal launch indicators such as the grasp reflex. Bitemporal lobectomy may result in hypermetamorphosis, as a function of the Kl�ver�Bucy syndrome. Cross References Geophagia, Geophagy; Kl�ver�Bucy syndrome Hyperpathia Hyperpathia is an unpleasant sensation, usually a burning pain, associated with elevated threshold for cutaneous sensory stimuli corresponding to gentle contact or cold and hot stimuli, especially repetitive stimuli. Clinical features of hyperpathia may include summation (pain notion - 185 - H Hyperphagia increases with repeated stimulation) and aftersensations (pain continues after stimulation has ceased). There is an accompanying diminution of sensibility because of elevating of the sensory threshold (cf. Hyperpathia is a function of thalamic lesions, and hence tends to involve the entire of one aspect of the physique following a unilateral lesion corresponding to a cerebral haemorrhage or thrombosis. Generalized hyperpathia may be seen in variant Creutzfeldt�Jakob illness, by which posterior thalamic (pulvinar) lesions are stated to be a characteristic neuroradiological finding. Cross References Allodynia; Dysaesthesia; Hyperalgesia Hyperphagia Hyperphagia is increased or excessive eating. Binge eating, notably of sweet things, is one of the neurobehavioural disturbances seen in certain of the frontotemporal dementias. Hyperphagia may be one function of a extra common tendency to put things in the mouth (hyperorality), for example, in the Kl�ver�Bucy syndrome. Cross References Cover checks; Heterophoria; Hypophoria Hyperpilaphesie the name given to the augmentation of tactile faculties in response to other sensory deprivation, for example, contact sensation in the blind. This may be physiological in an anxious patient (reflexes usually denoted ++), or pathological in the context of corticospinal pathway pathology (upper motor neurone syndrome, usually denoted +++). It is sometimes tough to distinguish usually brisk reflexes from pathologically brisk reflexes. On the opposite hand, upgoing plantar responses are a tough sign of upper motor neurone pathology; other accompanying indicators (weakness, sustained clonus, and absent stomach reflexes) also indicate abnormality. This may be because of impaired descending inhibitory inputs to the monosynaptic reflex arc. Rarely pathological hyperreflexia may occur in the absence of spasticity, suggesting completely different neuroanatomical substrates underlying these phenomena. Hyper-reflexia without spasticity after unilateral infarct of the medullary pyramid. It has also been noticed in some sufferers with frontotemporal dementia; the finding is cross-cultural, having been described in Christians, Muslims, and Sikhs. In the context of refractory epilepsy, it has been associated with reduced quantity of the best hippocampus, but not proper amygdala. Religiosity is associated with hippocampal but not amygdala volumes in sufferers with refractory epilepsy. Cross References Hypergraphia; Hyposexuality Hypersexuality Hypersexuality is a pathological improve in sexual drive and exercise.
Cancers of Bones and Joints: Primary Malignant Bone and Connective Tissue Tumors the three commonest major cancers of bones and joints are osteosarcoma depression quotes purchase abilify visa, Ewing sarcoma depression laziness purchase abilify 10 mg overnight delivery, and chondrosarcoma anxiety 6 months after quitting smoking order abilify 10 mg without prescription. Osteosarcoma, a malignant bone tissue tumor generally discovered near the rising end of the lengthy bones, is the most common, and happens most regularly in teens and younger adults. Ewing sarcoma, a tumor often situated within the shaft of lengthy bones and within the pelvic bones, happens most regularly in children and youth. However, the vast majority of chondromas never bear malignant change; subsequently, the routine resection of benign chondromas is unwarranted. Of these three, Ewing sarcoma is generally thought of to have the worst prognosis, adopted by osteosarcoma. However, this perception is essentially due to the larger tendency for osteosarcomas to present as excessive-grade tumors and for chondrosarcomas to present as low-grade tumors. When analyzed by stage, a current survivorship analysis revealed comparable survivorship charges for low-grade chondrosarcoma compared to low-grade osteosarcoma, and comparable survivorship charges for top-grade chondrosarcoma when compared to excessive grade osteosarcoma. By definition, all instances of Ewing sarcoma are excessive-grade, essentially the most aggressive class of most cancers, with full potential to metastasize and convey about dying. Approximately 6% to 20% of osteosarcomas are of lower grade; chondrosarcoma has the next proportion of low-grade instances than these different two bone and joint cancers. The fourth frequent "major" most cancers of the bone is myeloma, a malignant major tumor of the bone marrow fashioned from a sort of bone marrow cells called plasma cells (the cells that manufacture antibodies). The isolated single-bone version of myeloma is known as plasmacytoma, but just about all instances of isolated plasmacytoma evolve into full-fledged a number of myeloma within 5 to 10 years after diagnosis of the plasmacytoma. Like leukemia and lymphoma, myeloma is more correctly thought of a major most cancers of the hematopoietic bone marrow. Unlike leukemia, nevertheless, myeloma sometimes causes intensive adjustments or injury to the bone structure itself, causing fractures, ache, and hypercalcemia. While the explanation for this distinction is unknown, it may mirror reporting adjustments rather than incidence adjustments. Between 2000 and 2011, the annualized variety of major instances recorded increased by nearly 15%. Myeloma instances, nevertheless, increased at twice the rate of most cancers instances overall, forty seven% to 23%, respectively. Demographics: Cancers of Bones and Joints Gender and Race Bone cancers and delicate tissue sarcomas are discovered more regularly in males than females, and more regularly amongst Whites than these of some other race. However, charges have various barely for both genders and by race for Copyright � 2014 by the United States Bone and Joint Initiative. The common annual incidence of bone cancers between 2006 and 2010 was 9 in a single million, a fee that has remained constant for the final decade. The fee amongst White males was 12 in a single million, whereas, amongst White females it was eight in a single million. The lowest fee of six in a single million was discovered for both males and females of the Asian or Pacific Islander race. The incidence of myeloma within the United States is similar to the incidence of esophageal, liver, cervical, ovarian, brain, and lymphocytic leukemia cancers. However, it remains the main reason for most cancers in younger individuals beneath the age of 20 years. More than one in 4 diagnoses of bone and joints most cancers is in children and youth beneath the age of 20 years, with a couple of-half (52%) of instances recognized in person younger than 45 years. Males are sometimes recognized with bone cancers, and die from bone most cancers, at an age a number of years younger than females. Eight-5 % of new myeloma instances are recognized in individuals age fifty five years and older. Again, males are sometimes recognized with myeloma at ages a number of years younger than females. The median variety of years of survival after diagnosis is 17, with males averaging sixteen years and females 18 years. The overall 5-year survival fee for the primary forms of bone and joint cancers is 54% for osteosarcoma, seventy five% for chondrosarcoma, and 51% for Ewing sarcoma. The osteosarcoma survival fee varies with age: the 5-year survival was 70% for youngsters and youth beneath the age of 20 years,3 60% for individuals beneath 30 years of age, 50% for these aged 30 years to 49 years, and 30% for these 50 years old and older.
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