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Australian [adj best rated erectile dysfunction pills cheap sildalis 120mg online, n] the biogeographic space of New Guinea and adjoining islands erectile dysfunction vacuum device sildalis 120 mg without a prescription, and Australia and adjoining islands erectile dysfunction caused by diabetes purchase sildalis with a visa. Ethiopian [adj, n] the biogeographic space of Saharan and subSaharan Africa and the southern half of the Arabian Peninsula. Holarctic [adj, n] the biogeographic space composed of the Nearctic and Palearctic. Nearctic [adj, n] the biogeographic space of North America including the Mexican Plateau. Neotropical [adj, n] the biogeographic space of Central America (excluding the Mexican Plateau), South America, and the Greater and Lesser Antilles. Oriental [adj, n] Southern Asia, south of the Himalayan mountains and their east and west neighboring mountain ranges from the Indus Valley eastward via southern China and southward to the Seram-Halmahera seas. Palearctic [adj, n] the biogeographic space of Europe, Africa north of the Sahara, and Asia north of the Himalayan mountains and their east and west neighboring mountain ranges. Carolina Bay [adj, n] these ponds type in elliptical depressions and are distributed throughout the Atlantic seaboard states. B Bayesian Inference [adj, n] An iterative process during which the degree of perception in a speculation is updated as evidence accumulates. Unrelated species of Anolis on totally different islands have converged on varied ecomorphs. F fertility fee [adj, n] the average number of offspring that an organism can produce in its lifetime. Fertility fee is calculated by summing the average number of offspring produced at every age. For example, a turtle might produce 10 eggs at age 1, 30 at age 2, 35 at age three, and so forth. Gondwana the southern continent arising from the breakup of Pangaea and consisting of the long run} Antarctica, South America, Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. The duration of the hatchling state is variable, though its end in reptiles could be fixed by the disappearance of the yolk-sac scar. Laurasia the northern continent arising from the breakup of Pangaea consisting of the long run} North America, Greenland, and Eurasia. Morph is used often in dialogue of polymorphism and variation of individuals within a population or species. Net Reproductive Rate [adj, adj, noun] Number of offspring produced by a feminine during its lifetime taking into consideration not solely the fertility fee, but also age-specific mortality rates. P palpebral membrane [n] A clear "eyelid" that lies beneath the true eyelids and might lengthen horizontally from its resting position within the inner corner of the attention to the outer corner. Pangaea the megacontinent of the Paleozoic interval containing all the continental blocks that might turn out to be our present continents. M macroevolution [n] Any evolutionary change occurring at or above the species degree. At the very least, macroevolution ends in the splitting of one species into two. The splitting of one species into two or the splitting of higher order clades is often called cladogenesis. S salps [n, pl] Free-swimming, oceanic tunicates within the genus Salpa with clear, fusiform our bodies. X xeric [adj] Habitat with low moisture degree or water availability; tailored to dry or arid circumstances. A Ablepharus, 568 Abronia, 576­577 Abronia vasconcelosii, 577f Acalyptophis, 620 Acanthixalus, 513­514 Acanthocercus, 585 Acanthochelys, 527 Acanthodactylus, 572 Acanthodactylus scutellatus, 298f Acanthophis antarcticus, 304 Acanthophis praelongus, a hundred and seventy Acanthosaura, 585 Acanthostega, three, 4f, 7­9, 8f, 10f­11f, 13f, 83 Acerosodontosaurus, 103 Achalinus, 613 Aciprion, one hundred ten Acontias, 566 Acontias plumbeus, 566 Acontinae, 566­568 Acrantophis, 404f, 609 Acris, 243, 494 Acris crepitans, 207, 338­339, 339f Acris gryllus, 193t, 421t Acrochordidae, 108t­109t, 598f, 611­612, 613f Acrochordus, 197, 303, 404f, 611­612 Acrochordus arafurae, 215, 233t, 294, 614f Acrochordus granulatus, 194t, 612, 614f Acrochordus javanicus, 198f, 612 Actinemys marmorata, 430t Actinistia, 10f Acutotyphlops, 600 Adelophis, 625 Adelophryne, 500 Adelotus, 482 Adelphicos, 624 Adelphobates, 315, 335, 343­344, 489­490 Adelphobates castaneoticus, 313, 343­344, 344f Adelphobates galactonotus, 336f, 489f Adelphobates quinqevittatus, 336f Adenomera, 486 Adenomus, 491 Adolfus, 572 Aeluroglena, 622­623 Aeluroscalabotes, 561 Afrixalus, 513­514 Afrixalus delicatus, 276 Afrixalus fulvovittatus, 512f Afrixalus knysnae, 513­514 Afroablepharus, 568 Afrobatrachia, 395f Afroedura, 562 Afrogecko, 562 Afronatrix, 625 Agalychnis, 124, 163­164, 275, 495 Agalychnis callidryas, 133, 342 Agalychnis moreletii, 331­332 Agama, 585 Agama agama, 270 Agama savignyi, 207­208, 208f Agamidae, 107t­109t, one hundred ten, 126­127, 126t, 134t, 137t­138t, 151f, 189, 190f, 257t, 287f, 427t, 556, 556f, 582, 584­586 Agaminae, 584, 585­586, 585f Agamodon, 571 Agamura, 562 Agkistrodon, 299, 615 Agkistrodon contortrix, 145f, 360t Agkistrodon piscivorus, 246 Aglypha, 598 Aglyptodactylus, 504 Ahaetulla, 622­623 Ailuronyx, 387, 388t, 562 Aipysurus, 620, 621 Aistopoda, 10f, 14­15, 14f, 84f­85f, 85 Albanerpeton, 85f, 90f Albanerpetontidae, 85f, 90f Albericus, 518 Alethinophidia, 108t­109t, 598f, 603 Aleuroscalabotes feylinus, 298f Alexteroon, 513 Alexteroon obstetricans, 514 Algyroides, 572 Algyroides fitzingeri, 572­573 Alligator, 105, 176, 547, 549, 549f, 550 Alligator mississippiensis, 124­125, 129, 134t, 241t, 267, 267f, 280t, 360t, 424t­425t, 549­550 Alligator sinensis, 57f, 426, 549f, 550 Alligatoridae, 21, 97f, 104t, 126t, 134t, 257t, 546f, 547, 548­550, 549f Alligatorinae, 548­550, 549f Alligatoroidea, 104t Allobates, 163, 244, 335­336, 487 Allobates caeruleodactylus, 263, 263f, 488 Allobates chalcopis, 163, 488 Allobates conspicuous, 336f Allobates femoralis, 316f, 330f, 487­488, 488f Allobates gasconi, 330f Allobates nidicola, 163, 336f, 488 Allobates zaparo, 316f Allobatinae, 486­488, 488f Allopaa, 511 Allophryne, 483 Allophryne resplendens, 483 Allophryne ruthveni, 482f, 483 Allophrynidae, 473f, 482f, 483 Alluaudina, 620 Alopoglossinae, 574 Alopoglossus, 573 Alopoglossus angulatus, 573­574 Alsodes, 491 Alsodinae, 490, 491, 491f Alsophis, 624 Alsophis santicrucis, 431t­432t Alsophylax, 562 Altiphrynoides, 122, 491 Alytes, 92, 475 Alytes cisternasii, 475 Alytes muletensis, 430t, 439t, 440 Alytes obstetricans, 122f, 474f, 475 Alytidae, 92­94, 93t, 193t, 473f­474f, 475 Amapasaurus, 573 Amastridium, 624 Amblyodipsas, 618 Amblyomma, 350 Amblyomma marmoreum, 350 Amblyrhynchus, 312t, 313f, 587 Amblyrhynchus cristatus, 241t, 242f, 587­588 Ambystoma, 85f, 92, 136, 139­140, 140f, 241t, 275, 363, 412­413, 424t­425t, 436, 463 Ambystoma americanus, 370f Ambystoma annulatum, 463, 464f Ambystoma barbouri, 139­140, 141f Ambystoma gracile, 463 Ambystoma jeffersonianum, 137t­138t, 139­140, 140f­141f, 421t, 422 Ambystoma laterale, 137t­138t, 139­140, 140f­141f, 359, 370f, 424t­425t Ambystoma macrodactylum, 241, 412t Ambystoma maculatum, 123, 232, 252, 257t, 275, 370f, 412t, 421t, 422 Ambystoma mexicanum, 39, 463 Ambystoma opacum, 119­120, 132­133, 246, 363­364, 463 Ambystoma platineum, 139­140 Ambystoma talpoideum, 39­40, 40f, 119­120, one hundred thirty, 132­133, 149­150, 247f, 258f, 463 Ambystoma texanum, 123f, 139­140, 140f­141f Ambystoma tigrinum, 39, 41f, 139­140, 140f, 141f, 197f, 198f, 241, 247f, 251, 363, 370f, 463 Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum, 412t Ambystoma tremblayi, 139­140 Ambystomatidae, 85f, 90t, 126t, 137t­138t, 193t, 257t, 457­458, 458f, 463, 464f Ameerega, 489 Ameerega parvula, 133, 263 731 732 Taxonomic Index Ameerega picta, 330­331 Ameerga petersi, 330f Ameerga trivittata, 330f Ameitophrynus, 399f Ameiva, 286, 361f, 415, 575 Ameiva ameiva, 124­125, one hundred thirty five, 284, 361f, 575 Ameiva exsul, 280t Ameiva festiva, 207, 207f Ameiva fuscata, 360t Ameiva plei, 279, 286 Amietia, 506 Amietophrynus, 491 Amniota, 5t, 10f, 14f, 16, 16t, 17f­18f, 18, 19t, 117 Amolops, 508­509 Amphibia, 5t, 14­15, 16t, 26f, 36t, 427t Amphibolurus, 585 Amphibolurus muricatus, 120, 128 Amphiesma, 625 Amphiesmoides, 625 Amphiglossus, 568 Amphisbaena, 337­338, 556f, 571, 572 Amphisbaena alba, 337­338, 338f, 572 Amphisbaena fuliginosa, 391 Amphisbaenia, 5­7, 20, 97f, 107t­108t, 126t, 171t, 556f, 558f, 568, 569, 570, 571 Amphisbaenidae, 108t­109t, 397, 403f, 558f, 569f, 570, 571­572, 571f Amphiuma, ninety one, 303, 466 Amphiuma means, 466 Amphiuma pholeter, 466 Amphiuma tridactylum, 133, 466 Amphiumidae, 85f, 90t, ninety one, 212t, 257t, 457­458, 458f, 466, 466f Amplorhinus, 620 Amyda, 531 Anadia, 573 Anaxyrus, 193t, 300, 334, 394, 399f, 491 Anaxyrus americanus, 48t, 492f Anaxyrus boreas, 251, 295 Anaxyrus houstonensis, 440, 440f Anaxyrus punctatus, 185, 185f Anaxyrus woodhousii, 282 Ancylocranium, 571 Andinobates, 330­331 Andinophryne, 491 Andrias, 91­92, 207, 459 Andrias davidianus, 257t, 459 Andrias japonicus, 459 Androngo, 568 Aneides, 92, 468 Aneides lugubris, 257t Anelytropsis, 557, 559, 560 Angolosaurus, 313f Anguidae, 108t­109t, 151f, 212t, 240f, 257t, 287f, 298f, 431t­432t, 555, 556f, 558, 576­577, 577f, 578, 579 Anguimorpha, 97f, 108t­109t, 240, 240f, 372f­373f, 556f, 558f, 576, 577, 578, 579, 580, 581 Anguinae, 577­578 Anguis, 576 Anguis fragilis, 311, 376­377, 440, 576 Anhydrophryne, 506 Aniliidae, 108t­109t, 598, 598f, 603­604, 604f Anilius, 303, 404f, 604 Anilius scytale, 603, 604, 604f Anisolepis, 593 Anniella, 578­579 Anniella gerominensis, 578­579 Anniella pulchra, 578­579, 578f Anniellidae, 576, 577, 578­579 Annulata, one hundred ten, 556f, 557 Anodonthyla, 517 Anolis, 3­4, 28t, one hundred thirty, 135­136, 147­148, 214f, 232, 250, 257t, 268­270, 269f, 286, 321, 361f, 370­372, 370f, 389, 589 Anolis aeneus, 237, 271, 390f Anolis agassizi, 390f Anolis auratus, 250 Anolis brasiliensis, 389 Anolis carolinensis, 270, 287f, 424t­425t Anolis carpenteri, 269f, 390f Anolis chrysolepis, 389, 390f Anolis cristatellus, 213­214, 214f, 250 Anolis equestris, 589­590 Anolis fuscoauratus, 390f Anolis gingivinus, 347­348 Anolis grahami, 390f Anolis gundlachi, 214, 214f Anolis humilis, 390f Anolis lemurinus, 390f Anolis limifrons, 346­347, 390f Anolis lineatopus, 390f Anolis lineatus, 390f Anolis mestrei, 390f Anolis microtus, 390f Anolis n. See additionally Leptotyphlopidae Caudacaecilia, 449 Caudacaecilia nigroflava, 450 Caudata, 5, 5t, 14f, 18f, 25f, 90, 90t, 391f, 457 Causinae, 615 Causus, 615, 616, 617 Cautula, 568 Celatiscincus, 568 Celestus, 577, 578 Celestus curtissi, 578 Celestus macrotus, 578 Celestus occiduus, 431t­432t Celtedens ibericus, 90f Cemophora, 622­623 Centrolene, 484 Centrolene geckoideum, 483­484 Centrolene prosoblepon, 276 Centrolenidae, 93t, 163­164, 166f, 172, 473f, 483­484, 483f Centroleninae, 483, 484 Cerastes, 616, 617 Ceratobatrachidae, 93t, 473f, 509, 509f, 510f Ceratobatrachus, 509 Ceratophora, 585 Ceratophora tennentii, 585f Ceratophryidae, 93t, 188, 189f, 199f, 201f, 473f, 496­497, 496f Ceratophryinae, 495f, 496­497 Ceratophrys, 50, 53f, 87, 188, 301, 491, 496, 497 Ceratophrys calcarata, 497 Ceratophrys cornuta, 53f, 301, 301f, 495f, 497 Ceratophrys ornata, 497 Cerberus, 617 Cerberus rhynchops, 194t Cercolophia, 572 Cercophis, 624 Cercosaura, 573 Cercosaurinae, 574 Cerrophidion, 615 Ceuthomantidae, 400f, 473f, 498­499 Chabanaudia, 568 Chacophrys, 497 Chalarodon, 404f, 593 Chalarodon madagascarensis, 593 Chalcides, 568 Chalcidoseps, 568 Chamaeleo, 28t, 404f, 582 Chamaeleo dilepis, 583­584 Chamaeleo goetzei, 257t Chamaeleonidae, 107t­109t, 137t­138t, 151f, 212t, 240f, 257t, 298f, 556, 556f, 558f, 582­584, 583f Chamaelycus, 619 Chamaesaura, 563 Chamopsiinae, 574 Chaperina, 517 Chapinophis, 622­623 Charadrahyla, 494 Charina, 404f, 609, 610 Charina bottae, 609­610, 612f Chatogekko amazonicus, 311f Chelidae, 106t, 126t, 134t, 427t, 524, 525f, 527­528, 528f, 529f Chelodina, 386­387, 388f, 527­528 Chelodina expansa, 527­528 Chelodina longicollis, 134t Chelodina oblongata, 529f Taxonomic Index 735 Chelodina rugosa, forty three, 124­125, 528, 529f Chelomacryptodira, 525 Chelonia, 107, 524, 531 Chelonia agassizii, 24t Chelonia mydas, 24t, forty seven, 236, 245, 253, 312t, 346, 347f, 422, 423, 436­437, 531­532, 533f Chelonia mydas carrinegra, 24t Cheloniidae, 99, 106t, 126t, 427t, 430t, 524­525, 525f, 531­532, 532f, 533f Chelonioidea, 106t Chelonoides abingtonii, 431t­432t Chelonoides carbonaria, 312t Chelonoides hoodensis, 439t Chelonoidis, 537 Chelonoidis carbonaria, 537, 538f Chelonoidis denticulata, 537, 538f Chelonoidis elephantopus, 537 Chelosania, one hundred thirty five, 585 Chelus, 388f, 524 Chelus fimbriatus, 300, 309, 528 Chelydra, 106­107, 423­425, 533, 534f Chelydra serpentina, 124­125, 134t, 244, 333, 368­369, 369f, 424t­425t, 533­534, 534f Chelydridae, 106t, 126t, 134t, 213t, 524, 525f, 533­534, 534f Chelydropsis, 106­107 Chersina, 537 Chersodromus, 624 Chiasmocleis, 516 Chiasmocleis albopunctata, 186f Chikila fulleri, 452, 452f Chikilidae, 397t, 452, 452f Chilomeniscus, 622­623 Chilorhinophis, 618 Chinemys reevesi, 424t­425t Chioglossa, 306, 462 Chionactis, 622­623 Chioninia, 568 Chirindia, 571 Chirindia rondoense, 572 Chiromantis, 182, 188, 192, 213, 506 Chiromantis petersii, 188 Chiromantis xerampelina, 188, 506 Chironius, 244, 622­623 Chironius flavolineatus, 244f Chiropterotriton, 468 Chitra, 531 Chitulia, 620 Chlamydosaurus, 585 Chlamydosaurus kingi, 348 Chlorolius, 513 Choerophryne, 518 Chondrodactylus, 562 Chordata, 23 Christinus, 562 Chrysemys, 542 Chrysemys picta, forty three, 48t, 125­126, 125f, 131­132, 131f, 220, 221, 244, 333, 368­369, 541 Chrysemys scripta, 424t­425t Chrysobatrachus, 513 Chrysopaa, 511 Chrysopelea, 622­623 Chthonerpeton, 453 Chunerpeton tianyiensis, 90 Churamiti, 491 Claudiosaurus, 96­98, 97f Claudius, 536 Claudius angustatus, 536­537 Clelia, 624 Clemmys, 541 Clemmys guttata, 244, 249, 542 Clinotarsus, 508 Clonophis, 625 Cnemaspis, 562 Cnemidophorus, one hundred thirty five, 137t­138t, 143f, 236, 286, 313f, 361f, 572­573, 575 Cnemidophorus arenivagus, 143f Cnemidophorus arubensis, 575 Cnemidophorus cryptus, 137t­138t, 143f Cnemidophorus gramivagus, 143f Cnemidophorus lemniscatus, 575 Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus, 143f Cnemidophorus lemniscatus splendidus, 143f Cnemidophorus mumbuca, 361, 361f Cnemidophorus murinus, 575 Cnemidophorus ocellifer, one hundred thirty five Cnemidophorus pseudolemniscatus, 137t­138t, 143f Cnemidophorus ruthveni, 214­215, 215f, 333 Cochranella, 484 Coelognathus, 622­623 Coelophysis, 86f Coelurosauravus, 99­100 Coelurosauria, 20f Coeranoscincus, 568 Coggeria, 568 Coleodactylus, 338f, 562 Coleodactylus septentrionalis, 311f Coleonyx, 225­226, 226f, 561 Coleonyx brevis, 340, 561f Coleonyx elegans, 226, 226f Coleonyx mitratus, 226, 226f Coleonyx variegatus, 189, 191, 192f, 241t, 257t, 339­340 Collorhabdium, 623 Colobodactylus, 573 Colobosaura, 361f, 573 Colobosaura modesta, 361f Colobosauroides, 573 Coloptychon, 576 Colopus, 562 Colosteidae, 85f Colostethinae, 315, 488­489, 489f Colostethus, 489 Colostethus bocagei, 316f Colostethus elachyhistus, 316f Colostethus inguinalis, 122f Colostethus insperatus, 316f Colostethus kingsburyi, 316f Colostethus maculosus, 316f Colostethus nexipus, 316f Colostethus pulchellus, 316f Colostethus sauli, 316f Colostethus talamancae, 316f Colostethus trilineatus, 316f Colostethus vertebralis, 316f Coluber, 112, 237, 622­623 Coluber bilineata, 24t Coluber constrictor, 147f, 233t, 360t Coluber terstriatus, 24t Coluber viperinus, 24t Coluber viridiflavus, 249, 250f Colubridae, 21­22, 108t­109t, 126t, 134t, 151f, 212t, 304f, 598, 598f, 599, 613, 614, 617, 622­626, 622f Colubrinae, 598­599, 622­623, 623f Colubroidea, 108t­109t, 598­599, 598f Comonecturiodes marshi, 90­91 Compsophis, 620 Coniophanes, 624 Coniophis, 112 Conolophus, 313f, 587­588 Conolophus pallidus, 217­218, 219f, 587­588 Conophis, 624 Conopsis, 622­623 Conraua, 507 Conraua goliath, 207, 507 Conrauinae, 396f Contia, 624 Cophixalus, 518 Cophixalus parkeri, 172­173 Cophosaurus, 586 Cophosaurus texanus, 134t, 320f Cophoscincopus, 568 Cophotis, 585 Cophotis ceylanica, 586 Cophyla, 517 Cophylinae, 515, 517 Copiula, 518 Corallus, 299, 404f, 609 Corallus caninus, 609, 611f Corallus hortulanus, 297f, 299f, 302, 609, 611f Cordylidae, 107t­109t, one hundred ten, 134t, 240f, 257t, 556f, 563­564, 564f, 565, 565f, 566 Cordylinae, 298f Cordylosaurus, 564 Cordylus, 404f, 563, 564 Cordylus cataphractus, 343 Cordylus cordylus, 257t Cordylus niger, 565f Cordylus polyzonus, 134t Coronella, 622­623 Coronella austriaca, 134t, 376­377 Corucia, 313f, 568 Corucia zebrata, 312t, 568 Coryphophylax, 585 Corythomantis, 494 Corytophanes, 590 Corytophanes pericarinata, 590 Corytophanidae, 298f, 556, 558f, 589, 590, 590f Costata, 93t Cosymbotus platyurus, 298 Cotylosauria, 14f, 16t Cranopsis, 394, 399f Crassigyrinus, 4f, 10f Craugastor, 261, 500 Craugastor augusti, 500 Craugastor megacephalus, 499f Craugastor mimus, 323t­324t Craugastoridae, 400f, 499f, 500­501 Crenadactylus, 560 736 Taxonomic Index Crepidophryne, 491 Cricosaura, 565­566 Cricosaura typica, 565­566 Crinia, 275, 481 Crinia signifera, 482f Crisantophis, 624 Crocodilurus, 575­576 Crocodilurus amazonicus, 575­576 Crocodylia, 5t, 18f, 19t, 20f, 21, 26f, 103­104, 104t, 431t­432t, 545­552 Crocodylidae, 21, 97f, 104t, 126t, 257t, 431t­432t, 546­548, 550­552, 551f Crocodyliformes, 21, 102­103, 104t, 545 Crocodyloidea, 104t Crocodylotarsi, 20­21, 20f, 104t Crocodylus, 105, 176, 193­194, 194t, 546f, 547, 550­552 Crocodylus acutus, 60f, 545­546 Crocodylus intermedius, 552 Crocodylus johnsoni, 124­125, one hundred thirty five, 190­191, 551f Crocodylus mindorensis, a hundred and fifty, 173­174, 426 Crocodylus moreletii, 300 Crocodylus niloticus, a hundred and fifty, 173­174, 233t, 552 Crocodylus novaeguineae, 545­546 Crocodylus palustris, 174f Crocodylus porosus, 124­125, 124f, one hundred thirty five, a hundred and fifty, 172, 192, 194t, 545­546, 551­552, 551f Crocodylus raninus, 431t­432t Crossobamon, 562 Crossodactylodes, 490 Crossodactylus, 486 Crotalinae, 299, 614, 615­616, 616f Crotalus, 221, 299, 615 Crotalus atrox, 355­357, 424t­425t Crotalus cerastes, 224, 224f, 225f, 241t, 244 Crotalus durissus, 216f Crotalus horridus, a hundred and fifty Crotalus lepidus, 324, 325f Crotalus oreganus, 242 Crotalus viridis, 236, 242, 246, 278, 314, 616f Crotaphatrema, 395­397, 402f, 450­451 Crotaphatrema lamottei, 448f Crotaphatrema tchabalmbaboensis, 402f Crotaphopeltis, 622­623 Crotaphytidae, 556, 558f, 587, 587f, 588, 588f Crotaphytus, 3­4, 401­403, 404f­405f, 588 Crotaphytus antiquus, 394, 405f Crotaphytus bicintores, 401­403, 405f Crotaphytus collaris, 124­125, 401­403, 405f, 587f Crotaphytus dickersonae, 405f Crotaphytus grismeri, 405f Crotaphytus insularis, 405f Crotaphytus nebrius, 401­403, 405f Crotaphytus reticulatus, 405f Crotaphytus vestigium, 401­403, 405f Cruziohyla, 495 Cruziohyla calcarifer, 164, 495f, 496 Cruziohyla craspedopus, 164 Cryophis, 624 Cryptactites, 562 Cryptagama, 585 Cryptagama aurita, 585 Cryptobatrachus, 166, 497­498 Cryptoblepharus, 151, 568 Cryptoblepharus plagiocephalus, one hundred thirty five Cryptobranchidae, 85f, 90t, ninety one, 212t, 257t, 457­458, 458f, 459, 460f Cryptobranchoidea, 90, 90t, 457, 458 Cryptobranchoidei, 90t Cryptobranchus, forty seven, 48t, 56f, 61f, 91­92, 459 Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, 48t, 61f, 176, 197, 198f, 308, 459, 460f Cryptobratrachus, 166 Cryptodira, 97f, 106t, 523­524, 524f, 525f, 528 Cryptothylax, 513 Cryptotriton, 468 Ctenoblepharys, 313, 592 Ctenophorus, 585 Ctenophorus fordi, 586 Ctenophryne, 516 Ctenophryne geayi, 516f Ctenosaura, 313f, 587 Ctenosaura pectinata, 57f Ctenotus, 134t, 135­136, 568 Cuora, 538 Cuora aureocapita, 539 Cuora trifasciata, 423­425, 539 Cyclanorbinae, 530, 530f Cyclanorbis, 530 Cyclanorbis elegans, 530 Cyclemys, 538 Cyclemys dentata, 539 Cycloderma, 530 Cyclodina northlandi, 431t­432t, 432 Cyclodomorphus, 568 Cycloramphidae, 93t, 473f, 490­491, 490f Cycloramphinae, 490­491, 491f Cycloramphus, 490­491 Cyclorana, 221 Cyclotyphlops, 600 Cyclura, 313f, 417, 419f, 587, 588 Cyclura carinata, a hundred and fifty, 312t Cyclura collei, 431t­432t Cyclura nublia, 419f Cylindraspis inepta, 431t­432t Cylindrophiidae, 598, 607f, 608 Cylindrophis, 404f, 608 Cylindrophis ruffus, 607f Cynisca, 571 Cynops, 462 Cynops pyrrhogaster, 424t­425t Cynosphenodon, 553 Cyrtopodion, 562 D Daboia, 616 Dactyloidae, 558f, 589­590, 589f, 590f Dalophia, 571 Darevskia, 572 Darevskia armeniaca, 138t Darevskia bendimahiensis, 137t­138t Darevskia dahli, 137t­138t Darevskia rostombekovi, 137t­138t Darevskia sapphirina, 137t­138t Darevskia saxicola, 140 Darevskia unisexualis, 138t, 141­142 Darevskia uzzeli, 137t­138t Dasia, 568 Dasypeltis, 622­623 Dasypops, 516 Deinagkistrodon, 615 Deirochelyinae, 542 Deirochelys, 542 Deirochelys reticularia, 131­132, 131f, 244 Delma, 560 Delma australis, 560­561 Demansia, 620 Dendragama, 585 Dendrelaphis, 622­623 Dendroaspis, 620 Dendrobates, 243, 264, 315, 335­336, 489, 515­516 Dendrobates arboreus, 316f Dendrobates auratus, 316f, 323t­324t Dendrobates duellmani, 316f Dendrobates fantasticus, 316f Dendrobates fulguritus, 316f Dendrobates granuliferus, 316f Dendrobates imitator, 316f Dendrobates minutus, 316f Dendrobates pumilio, 316f Dendrobates reticulatus, 316f Dendrobates speciosus, 316f Dendrobates sylvaticus, 316f Dendrobates vanzolinii, 316f Dendrobates variabilis, 316f Dendrobates ventrimaculatus, 316f Dendrobatidae, 93t, 335­336, 473f, 487­490, 488f Dendrobatinae, 315, 488­490, 489f Dendrobatoidea, 486, 488 Dendrolycus, 619 Dendrophidion, 622­623 Dendrophryniscus, 399f, 491 Dendrophryniscus carvalhoi, 491­493 Dendrophryniscus minutus, 492f Dendropsophus, 163­164, 494 Dendropsophus ebraccatus, 260 Dendropsophus minutus, 282 Dendropsophus parviceps, 262, 263f Dendrosophus ebraccatus, 133 Dendrosophus sarayacuensis, 133 Dendrotriton, 468 Denisonia, 620 Densignathus, 7 Dermatemydidae, 106t, 126t, 524, 525f, 534­536, 535f Dermatemys mawii, 534­535, 535f Dermatonotus, 516 Dermatonotus muelleri, 40f Dermochelyidae, 99, 107, 126t, 524­525, 525f, 532­533, 533f Dermochelys, 524­525 Dermochelys coriacea, 217, 236, 430t, 532, 533f Dermophiidae, 454, 455­456 Dermophiinae, 448 Dermophis, 449, 455 Dermophis mexicanus, 161, 161f, 449, 455­456 Taxonomic Index 737 Dermophis parviceps, 455­456 Desmognathus, 40, 48t, 257, 468 Desmognathus apalachicolae, 468 Desmognathus carolinensis, 468 Desmognathus fuscus, 233t, 249 Desmognathus imitator, 330 Desmognathus monticola, 234 Desmognathus ocoee, 146t Desmognathus quadramaculatus, 48t Desmognathus wrighti, 468 Diadectomorpha, 10f, 14f, 16t, 17f, 97f Diadectosalamandroidei, 89­90 Diadectosalamdroidei, 90t Diadophis, 252, 624 Diadophis punctatus, 48t, 241t Diaglena, 494 Diaphorolepis, 624 Diapsida, 5t, 17f, 19, 19t, 20f, 96, 101, 104t Dibamidae, 107t­108t, 372f­373f, 556f, 557­560, 558f, 559f Dibamus, 557, 559 Dicamptodon, 85f, 90t, ninety one, 463 Dicamptodon aterrimus, 464f Dicamptodon copei, 463 Dicamptodon ensatus, 193t, 257t, 463 Dicamptodon tenebrosus, 463 Dicamptodontidae, 85f, 90t, 463 Dicrodon, one hundred ten, 575 Dicrodon guttulatum, 143f, 312t, 575 Dicroglossidae, 93t, 192, 193t, 473f, 510­511, 511f Dicroglossinae, 396f, 398f, 510f, 511 Didynamipus, 491 Dienonychus, 101f Dierogekko, 560 Dimetrodon, 96 Dinarolacerta, 572 Dinilysia, 112, 112f Dinilysiidae, 112 Dinodon, 622­623 Dinosauria, 20, 20f, 97f Diplocaulus, 84f, 85­86 Diplodactylidae, 126, 126t, 558f, 559f, 560 Diplodactylinae, 556­557, 559f Diplodactylus, 560 Diplodactylus ciliaris, 335f Diplodactylus pulcher, 559f Diplodactylus spinigerus, 336 Diploglossa, 556f Diploglossiade, 107t­108t Diploglossidae, 558f, 576, 577­578, 578f, 579 Diploglossus, 577, 578 Diploglossus anelpistus, 578 Diploglossus delasagra, 578 Diploglossus fasciatus, 578f Diploglossus lessonae, one hundred thirty five, 329­330 Diploglossus warreni, 578 Diplolaemus, 404f, 593 Diplometopon, 571 Dipnoi, 10f, 18f, 85f Diporiphora, one hundred thirty five, 585 Dipsadinae, 599, 622, 624­625, 624f Dipsadoboa, 622­623 Dipsas, 624­625 Dipsas indica, 303f Dipsina, 619 Dipsochelys dussumieri, 360t Dipsosaurus, 313f, 587 Dipsosaurus dorsalis, one hundred ninety, 225f, 269f, 296, 312t, 321, 323t­324t Dischidodactylus, 501 Discodeles, 509 Discodeles bufoniformis, 509 Discoglossidae, 126t Discoglossus, 92, 475 Discoglossus nigriventer, 431t­432t Discoglossus pictus, 475 Discoglossus sardus, 193t Dispholidus, 622­623 Disteira, 620 Ditaxodon, 624 Ditypophis, 620 Dixonius, 562 Dogania, 531 Dogania subplana, 531 Dorsetisauridae, 103­104 Doswellia, 20 Dracaena, 74­75, 302, 575 Dracaena guianensis, 575­576 Draco, 21, 99­100, 100f, 331­332, 585 Draco jareckii, 100f Drepanoides, 624 Dromicodryas, 620 Dryadophis, 622­623 Drymarchon, 622­623 Drymobius, 622­623 Drymoluber, 622­623 Dryocalamus, 622­623 Dryophiops, 622­623 Drysadalia, 620­621 Duberria, 620 Duellmanohyla, 494 Duttaphrynus, 201f, 399f, 491 Dyscophinae, 517 Dyscophus, 517 Dyscophus antongili, 517 E Ebenavia, 562 Echinanthera, 624 Echinosaura, 573 Echinotriton, 333, 462 Echinotriton andersoni, 333f Echiopsis, 620 Echis, 616 Echis carinatus, 331, 616­617 Echis coloratus, 616­617 Ecnomiohyla, 494 Ecnomiohyla miliaria, 331­332 Ecpleopinae, 574 Ecpleopus, 573 Edalorhina, 484 Edalorhina perezi, 485f Edaphosaurus, 96 Edops, 4f, 14­15, 14f Egernia, 288, 313f, 568 Egernia depressa, 567f Egernia hosmeri, 288 Egernia saxatilis, 175­176, 271 Egernia stokesii, 271, 280t Egernia whitii, 175­176 Eichstaettisaurus, 103­104 Eirenis, 622­623 Elachistocleis, 516 Elachistocleis ovalis, 311f Elachistodon, 622­623 Elaphe, 622­623 Elaphe carinata, 424t­425t Elaphe radiata, 424t­425t Elapidae, 108t­109t, 126t, 134t, 151f, 169­170, 303, 304f, 598­599, 598f, 613, 614, 617, 619, 619f, 620­622 Elapinae, 621f Elapognathus, 620 Elapomorphus, 624 Elapotinus, 618 Elapsoidea, 620 Elasmodactylus, 562 Eleutherodactylidae, 400f, 498f, 499­500 Eleutherodactylinae, 499­500 Eleutherodactylus, forty three, ninety five, 122­124, 261, 394­395, 414­415, 472, 499, 500 Eleutherodactylus cooki, 163 Eleutherodactylus coqui, 172, 186, 186f, 360t, 429­430, 429f, 499 Eleutherodactylus eneidae, 431t­432t Eleutherodactylus jasperi, 165­166, 169, 431t­432t, 499 Eleutherodactylus karlschmidti, 431t­432t Eleutherodactylus marnockii, 233t Eleutherodactylus martinicensis, 193t Eleutherodactylus nubicola, 41f Elgaria coerulea, 168, 576­577 Elgaria multicarinata, 350, 577 Elginerpeton, three, 7, 10f Elpistostege, 8­9, 10f Elseya, 527 Elusor, 527 Elusor macrurus, 528 Emmochiliopis, 624 Emoia, 568 Emoia cyanura, 557 Emoia nigra, 428 Emydidae, 106t, 126t, 134t, 213t, 427t, 524­525, 525f, 540­542 Emydinae, 540f, 541­542 Emydocephalus, 620 Emydoidea, 541, 542 Emydoidea blandingii, 124­125, 359, 368­369, 369f, 430t Emydura, 387­389, 388f, 527 Emys, 524, 541­542 Emys blandingii, 542 Emys marmorata, 542 Emys orbicularis, 126­127 Engystomops, 3­4, 484 Engystomops petersi, 390, 392f Engystomops pustulosus, 260, 261 Enhydrina, 620 Enhydrina schistosa, 360t Enhydris, 617 Enhydris plumbae, 244­245, 617f 738 Taxonomic Index Enneabatrachus, 93­94 Ensatina, 36t, 187, 468 Ensatina escholtzii, 198f Ensatina eschscholtzii, 437 Enuliophis, 624 Enulius, 624 Enyalioides, 592 Enyalioides palpebralis, 332f, 591f Enyalius, 593 Enyalius leechi, 593f Eocaecilia, 85f, 89, 92 Eocaecilia micropodia, 4f, 89 Eocaiman, 105 Eodiscoglossus, 92 Eopelobates, 94 Epacrophis, 602 Epanodonta, 598. See additionally Typhlopidae Ephalophis, 620 Epicrates, 176, 404f, 609 Epicrates cenchria, 338f, 609, 611f Epicrionops, 448­449 Epicrionops petersi, 55f, 448f Epictia, 603 Epictinae, 601, 602, 603 Epidalea, 491 Epidalea calamita, 282, 412t Epipedobates, 489 Epipedobates anthonyi, 316f Epipedobates bassleri, 316f Epipedobates bilinguis, 316f Epipedobates boulengeri, 316f Epipedobates hahneli, 316f Epipedobates parvulus, 316f Epipedobates rubriventris, 316f Epipedobates silverstonei, 316f Epipedobates tricolor, 173f, 316f Epipedobates trivittatus, 316f Eremianae, 573 Eremias, 572 Eremiascincus, 568 Eretmochelys, 531 Eretmochelys imbricata, 531­532 Ericabatrachus, 506 Eristocophis, 616 Eroticoscincus, 568 Erpeton, 617 Erpeton tentaculatum, 300, 300f Erycinae, 608, 609­610, 612f Erymnochelys, 404f, 526 Eryops, 4f, 14­15, 84, 84f, 87­88 Erythrolamprus, 624 Erythrolamprus aesculapii, 624f Eryx, 404f, 609, 610 Estesia, 111 Etheridgeum, 623 Eublepharidae, 126­127, 126t, 131f, 558f, 561, 561f Eublepharinae, 298f Eublepharis, 561 Eugongylus, 568 Eulamprus, 568 Eulamprus tympanum, 129 Euleptes, 562 Eumeces, 40, 124, 377f, 568 Eumeces laticeps, 40 Eumecia, 568 Eunectes, 404f, 609 Eunectes murinus, 279 Eunotosaurus, 98 Euparkerella, 501 Euparkeria, 20, 101 Eupemphix, 484 Eupemphix nattereri, 326­327 Euphlyctis, 193t, 511 Euposauridae, 97f, 103­104 Euprepes, 568 Euproctus, 462 Eureptilia, 4f, 5t, 14f, 17f, 19t, 33, 96 Euryapsida, 19­20, 20f Eurycea, 334, 467, 468 Eurycea bislineata, 41f, 399­400 Eurycea lucifuga, 355­357 Eurycea tynerensis, 240­241 Eurycea wilderae, 48t Eurydactylodes, 560 Eurylepis, 568 Eusophus, 491 Euspondylus, 573 Eusthenopteron, 4f, 7­9, 8f, 11f, 13f, 85f Eutropis, 568 Exallodontophis, 620 Exerodonta, 494 Exiliboa, 404f, 609 Exiliboa placata, 609 F Farancia, 624 Farancia abacura, 124­125, 624­625 Fejervarya, 511 Fejervarya cancrivora, 193, 193t Feylinia, 567, 568 Feylininae, 566 Ficimia, 622­623 Fimbrios, 613 Flaviagama, one hundred ten Flectonotus, 166­167, 172f, 174, 497­498 Flectonotus fitzgeraldi, 172f Fojia, 568 Fordonia, 617 Fordonia leucobalia, 617 Fritziana, 166­167 Frostius, 491 Furcifer, 582 Furcifer minor, 583f Furcifer pardalis, 296f, 307f Furina, 620 G Gallotia, 271, 313f, 572 Gallotia goliath, 431t­432t Gallotia stehlini, 48t, 257t, 572­573 Gallotianae, 573 Gambelia, 401­403, 402f, 588 Gambelia copei, 401­403, 405f Gambelia sila, 401­403, 405f Gambelia wislizenii, 320f, 401­403, 405f Garthius, 615 Gastropholis, 572­573 Gastrophryne, 212t, 377f, 516 Gastrophryne carolinensis, 193t, 375­376 Gastrophryne olivacea, 375­376 Gastrophryninae, 516­517, 516f Gastrotheca, 166­167, 172f, 174, 195, 497­498 Gastrotheca cornuta, 196f Gastrotheca guentheri, 472 Gastrotheca walkeri, 55f, 172f, 498f Gavialidae, 97f, 104t, 126t, 257t, 547­548, 547f Gavialis, 104, 546­548, 546f Gavialis gangeticus, 439, 439t, 547, 547f, 548f Gavialidae, 547, 547f, 550 Gavialoidea, 104t Geagras, 622­623 Geckoella, 562 Geckolepis, 562 Geckonia, 563 Gegeneophis, 454 Gegeneophis danieli, 454f Gegeneophis pareshi, 454 Gegeneophis seshachari, 454 Gehyra, 387, 388t, 562 Gekko, 562 Gekko gecko, 257t, 424t­425t Gekkonidae, 126t, 137t­138t, 151f, 256, 257t, 298f, 556­557, 556f, 558f, 561, 562, 563f Gekkoninae, 556­557 Gekkonoidea, 126t, 212t Gekkota, 97f, 107t­108t, 109, 268, 287f, 292, 292f, 368f, 372f­373f, 427t, 431t­432t, 556, 557, 560, 561, 562 Gemmatophora, one hundred thirty five Genophryne, 518 Geobatrachus, 501 Geocalamus, 571 Geochelone, 244, 537 Geochelone gigantea, 47­48, 48t, 145f, 147­148 Geochelone sulcata, 44f Geoclemys, 538 Geoclemys hamiltoni, 539 Geocrinia, 481­482 Geoemyda, 538 Geoemyda spengleri, 539 Geoemydidae, 126t, 524­525, 525f, 537­540, 538f Geomyersia, 568 Geophis, 624 Geosaurus, 98­99 Geoscincus, 568 Geotrypetes, 89, 455, 456 Gephyromantis, 504 Gephyromantis cornutus, 264f Gephyromantis eiselti, 503­504 Gephyromantis luteus, 264f Gephyromantis pseudoasper, 264f Gephyrosaurus, 21, 21f, 97f Gerarda, 617 Gerobatrachus, 88­89 Gerobatrachus hottoni, 15 Gerrhonotus, 576 Gerrhonotus liocephalus, 172, 576­577 Taxonomic Index 739 Gerrhopilidae, 598, 598f, 600­601 Gerrhopilus, 600, 601 Gerrhosauridae, 107t­108t, one hundred ten Gerrhosaurus, 564 Gerrhosaurus nigrolineatus, 565f Gerrhosaurus skoogi, 565 Gerrhosaurus skoogii, 312t Gerrhosaurus validus, 564­565 Gerrothorax, 87­88 Gigantophis, 112 Glaphyromorphus, 568 Gloydius, 615 Glyphoglossus, 517 Glyphoglossus molossus, 515 Glyptemys insculpta, 213 Glyptemys muhlenbergi, 541 Gnypetoscincus, 568 Gobiates, 94 Goggia, 562 Gomesophis, 624 Gonatodes, 562 Gonatodes albogularis, 391f, 561 Gonatodes annularis, 389­390, 391f Gonatodes caudiscutatus, 391f Gonatodes daudinii, 391f Gonatodes eladioi, 391f Gonatodes hasemani, 389­390, 391f Gonatodes humeralis, 124­125, 389­390, 391f Gonatodes ocellatus, 391f Gonatodes vittatus, 391f Gongylomorphus, 568 Gonionotophis, 619 Goniurosaurus, 561 Gonocephalus, 585 Gonyophis, 622­623 Gonyosoma, 622­623 Gopherus, 537 Gopherus agassizii, 127f, 194, 194f, 221, 265, 266f, 280t, 440­441, 537 Gopherus berlandieri, 124­125, 538f Gopherus polyphemus, 127f, 237, 312, 312t, 440 Graciliscincus, 568 Grandisonia, 388t, 454 Grandisonia brevis, 449 Graptemys, 244, 541, 542 Graptemys ouachitensis, 540f Grayia, 623 Grayia ornata, 623f Grayiinae, 622, 623, 626 Greererpeton, 4f Grypotyphlops, 600 Guibemantis, 504 Guibemantis bicalcaratus, 264f Guibemantis liber, 122f, 264f, 503­504 Guinea, 602, 603 Gyalopion, 622­623 Gymnodactylus, 361f, 563 Gymnodactylus carvalhoi, 361f Gymnophiona, 5, 5t, 14f, 18f, 85f, 89t, 447 Gymnophthalmidae, 107t­108t, 137t­138t, 143f, 151f, 556­557, 556f, 558f, 573­574, 573f­574f Gymnophthalmus, 573 Gymnophthalmus underwoodi, 137t­138t, 311f Gymnopis, 455 Gyrinophilus, 468 Gyrinophilus palleucus, 468 Gyrinophilus porphyriticus, 197f, 468 H Haackgreerius, 568 Habrosaurus, ninety one Haemodracon, 563 Haemoproteus, 348t­349t Haitiophis, 624 Hakaria, 568 Hamptophryne, 516 Hannemani dunni, 348­350 Hapsidophrys, 622­623 Hardella, 538 Harpesaurus, 585 Heleioporus, 482­483 Heleioporus australiacus, 482­483 Heleophryne, 480 Heleophryne purcelli, 480, 480f Heleophrynidae, 93t, 473f, 480­481, 480f, 481f Helicops, 624 Heliobolus, 572 Heliobolus lugubris, 329­330, 329f Helminthophis, 603 Heloderma, 50, 304, 556, 557, 579­580 Heloderma horridum, 580, 580f Heloderma suspectum, 205, 580, 580f Helodermatidae, 212t, 298f, 303, 556f, 558f, 579­580, 579f, 580, 580f Hemachatus, 620, 621 Hemachatus anurans, 621 Hemiaspis, 620 Hemibungarus, 620 Hemibungarus calligaster, 329­330, 621f Hemidactylinae, 468 Hemidactylium, 63, 468 Hemidactylium scutatum, 123­124, 242, 370f Hemidactylus, one hundred thirty five, 137t­138t, 361f, 384­385, 424t­425t, 562 Hemidactylus agrius, 339­340 Hemidactylus frenatus, 298 Hemidactylus garnotii, 137t­138t, 562 Hemidactylus mabouia, 297f, 563f Hemidactylus stejnegeri, 137t­138t Hemidactylus turcicus, 298 Hemidactylus vietnamensis, 137t­138t Hemiergis, 568 Hemiphractidae, 473f, 497­498, 497f, 498f, 499 Hemiphractus, 166­167, 332, 497­498 Hemiphractus fasciatus, 259t Hemiphractus scutatus, 498f Hemiphyllodactylus, 562 Hemiphyllodactylus typus, 137t­138t Hemirhagerrhis, 619­620 Hemisotidae, 93t, 175, 473f, 511­513, 512f Hemisotinae, 396f Hemisphaeriodon, 568 Hemisus, 123­124, 175, 512­513 Hemisus guttatus, 306 Hemisus marmoratus, 512f Hemitheconyx, 226f, 561 Henophidia, 598­599 Heosemys, 538 Heosemys grandis, 539f Heosemys silvatica, 539 Herpele, 395­397, 448, 451­452 Herpele multiplicata, 452 Herpele squalostoma, 402f Herpelidae, 451­452, 451f Hesperornis, 99f Heterixalus, 513 Heterodactylus, 573 Heterodon, 337, 624 Heterodon platirhinos, 298, 337f Heteroliodon, 620 Heteronotia, 562 Heteronotia binoei, 137t­138t Heurnia, 617 Hierophis, 622­623 Hildebrandtia, 507 Hoburogecko, one hundred ten Hodzhakulia, one hundred ten Holaspis, 572­573 Holaspis guentheri, 572­573, 573f Holbrookia, 586, 587 Holbrookia propinqua, 270, 279, 321, 323t­324t, 341 Holoaden, 501 Holoadeninae, 501 Holodactylus, 226f, 561 Hologerrhum, 625 Homalopsidae, 598f, 599, 613, 614, 617 Homalopsinae, 617f Homalopsis, 617 Homalopsis buccata, 617 Homo sapiens, 409 Homonota, 563 Homopholis, 562 Homopus, 537 Homoroselaps, 598­599, 618, 619 Homoroselaps lacteus, 618f Hoplobatrachus, 511 Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, 424t­425t, 510f, 511 Hoplocephalus, 620 Hoplocephalus bungaroides, 236, 430t Hoplocercidae, 556, 588f, 591f, 592 Hoplocercus, 592 Hoplocercus spinosus, 591f Hoplodactylus, 560 Hoplodactylus delcourti, 431t­432t, 560 Hoplodactylus maculatus, 249 Hoplodactylus pacificus, 312t Hoplophryne, 517 Hoplophryninae, 515, 517 Hormonotus, 619 Huia, 508 Huia cavitympanum, 263 Humerana, 508 Hyalinobatrachium, 124, 484 Hyalinobatrachium fleishmanni, 172 Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense, 482f Hyalinobatrachium valerioi, 172f 740 Taxonomic Index Hydomates, 468 Hydrablabes, 625 Hydraethiops, 625 Hydrelaps, 620 Hydrodynastes, 624 Hydrolaetare, 485 Hydromantes italicus, 296­298 Hydromedusa, 388f, 527, 528 Hydromorphus, 624 Hydrophiinae, 598­599, 621­622, 621f Hydrophis, 620, 621 Hydrophis spiralis, 621 Hydrops, 624 Hydrosaurus, 313f, 585 Hydrosaurus amboinensis, 585 Hyla, ninety five, 188, 334, 494 Hyla andersonii, 421­422, 421t Hyla chrysoscelis, 186f Hyla cinerea, 424t­425t Hyla meridionalis, 241t Hyla versicolor, 61f, 221, 363, 421t Hylaarborea, 132­133 Hylarana, 508 Hylarana arfaki, 508­509 Hylarana chalconota, 192 Hylarana signata, 192 Hylidae, 85f, 93t, 126t, 174­175, 187f, 188, 188f, 193t, 212t, 241, 263f, 342­343, 427t, 473f, 493­496, 493f Hylinae, 494­495, 494f Hylodes, 486 Hylodes asper, 262, 263f Hylodidae, 93t, 473f, 485f, 486, 486f Hyloidea, 93t, 473f, 482 Hylonomus, 18­19, 95­96 Hylonomus lyelli, 95f Hylophorbus, 518 Hylophorbus rufescens, 518 Hylorina, 491 Hyloscirtus, 494 Hyloxalinae, 489f, 490 Hyloxalus, 490 Hyloxalus chlorocraspedus, 330f, 489f, 490 Hymenochirus, 424t­425t, 477­478 Hymenochirus boettgeri, 309 Hymenochirus curtipes, 424t­425t Hynerpeton, 7 Hynobiidae, 90t, 91­92, 161, 457­458, 458f, 460, 461f Hynobius, 460 Hynobius leechi, 460f Hynobius lichenatus, 460 Hynobius retardatus, 336 Hyperoliidae, 93t, 188, 427t, 473f, 512f, 513­514, 513f Hyperolius, 182, 188, 513­514 Hyperolius puncticulatus, 513­514 Hyperolius pusillus, 513­514 Hyperolius viridiflavus, 188 Hypnale, 615 Hypogeophis, 454 Hypogeophis rostratus, 454 Hypopachus, 516 Hypoptophis, 618 Hyporhina, one hundred ten Hypselotriton orientalis, 424t­425t Hypsiboas, 494 Hypsiboas boans, 123­124, 124f, 133, 162, 259t, 494­495 Hypsiboas cinerascens, 494f Hypsiboas faber, 494­495 Hypsiboas geographicus, 241 Hypsiboas lanciformis, 259t Hypsiboas rosenbergi, 123­124, 162, 172­173, 264, 494­495 Hypsicalotes, 585 Hypsiglena, 624 Hypsilurus, 585 Hypsirhynchus, 624 Isthmohyla, 494 Itapotihyla, 494 Ithycyphus, 620 J Jakubsonia, 7 Janetaescincus, 568 Japalura, 585 Japalura brevipes, 134t K Kababisha humarensi, ninety one Kababisha sudanensis, ninety one Kachuga, 539 Kachuga dhongoka, 539 Kaestlea, 568 Kalophryninae, 515, 516f Kalophrynus, 515 Kalophrynus pleurostigma, 516f Kaloula, 518 Kanakysaurus, 568 Karaurus sharovi, 4f, 90, 91f Karsenia, 468 Kassina, 513 Kassinula, 513 Kayentachelys aprix, 106 Kenichthys, 9, 10f Kentropyx, 137t­138t, 143f, 575 Kentropyx altamazonica, 143f Kentropyx borckiana, 143f Kentropyx borckianus, 137t­138t Kentropyx calcarata, 143f Kentropyx pelviceps, 143f, 574f Kentropyx striata, 143f Kerilia, 620 Kinixys, 537 Kinixys erosa, 537 Kinosternidae, 106t, 126t, 134t, 213t, 427t, 524­525, 525f, 536­537, 536f Kinosterninae, 535f, 536 Kinosternoidea, 106t Kinosternon, 536 Kinosternon baurii, 125, 194 Kinosternon flavescens, 124­125, 134t, 236, 241t, 536 Kinosternon scorpioides, 536 Kinosternon sonoriense, 236 Kinosternon subrubrum, 244, 435­436 Kizylkuma, 94 Kolphophis, 620 Kuehneosauridae, 21, 21f, 97f, 103 Kuehneosaurus, 100f, 103 I Ialtris, 624 Iberolacerta, 572 Iberolacerta cyreni, 323t­324t, 336­337, 337f Iberolacerta monticola, 271, 272, 323t­324t, 340 Iberovaranus, 111 Icarosaurus, 100f Ichnotropis, 572 Ichthyophiidae, 89t, 391f, 397t, 401f, 448, 449­450, 450f Ichthyophis, 449, 450 Ichthyophis bannanicus, 450f Ichthyophis bombayensis, 450 Ichthyophis glandulosus, 432 Ichthyophis glutinosus, 448f, 450 Ichthyophis kohtaoensis, 149, 161, 450 Ichthyosauria, 19­20, 20f, 97f Ichthyosaurus intermedius, 99f Ichthyostega, three, 4f, 7­9, 8f, 83, 85f Ichthyostegalia, three, 4f, 85f Ichythyophis, 56f Idiocranium, 454 Idiocranium russeli, 454 Iguana, 302, 331­332, 419f, 426, 587, 588, 592 Iguana iguana, 23, 172­173, 271, 312, 312t, 587f, 588 Iguania, 21, 28t, 97f, 103­104, 107t­108t, 109, 126t, one hundred thirty, 151f, 212t, 240, 240f, 268, 270, 279, 292f, 296, 298, 313, 368f, 372f­373f, 427t, 431t, 556­557, 556f, 558f, 582, 584, 586­587, 588, 589, 590, 592, 593 Iguanidae, 23, 107t­109t, one hundred ten, 287f, 291, 296, 298, 312t, 315, 556, 556f, 558f, 573f, 587­588, 587f Iguanognathus, 625 Imantodes, 624­625 Incilius periglenes, 431t­432t Indirana, 265, 392­394, 502f, 503 Indotestudo, 537 Indotestudo forsteni, 537 Indotyphlidae, 454, 454f Indotyphlus, 454 Ingerana, 511 Ingerophrynus, 399f, 491 Insuetophrynus, 491 Iphisa, 573 Iranolacerta, 572 Ischnocnema, 500 Isopachys, 568 L Lacerta, 197, 270, 572 Lacerta agilis, 129, 129f, 167, 279, 280t, 439­440, 439t Lacerta armeniaca, 137t­138t Lacerta crocodilus, 546 Lacerta viridis, 198f Lacertaspis, 568 Lacertidae, 107t­109t, one hundred ten, 126t, 134t, 137t­138t, 151f, 212t, 240f, 257t, 268, 287f, 298f, 427t, 431t­432t, 556, 556f, 557, 558f, 572­573, 572f, 573f Taxonomic Index 741 Lacertiformes, 556f, 557, 572, 573, 574 Lacertinae, 573 Lacertoides, 568 Lachesis, 615, 616 Lachesis muta, 237, 430t, 615­616 Laemanctus, 590 Lalagobatrachia, 472 Laliostoma, 504 Laliostoma labrosum, 504 Laliostominae, 398f, 504 Lamprolepis, 568 Lampropeltis, 622­623 Lamprophiidae, 598f, 599, 613, 614, 617­620, 618f Lamprophiinae, 617, 619 Lamprophis, 619 Lampropholis, 568 Lampropholis delicata, 149 Lampropholis guichenoti, 148 Langaha, 617, 620 Lankanectes, 392­394, 398f, 509­510 Lankanectinae, 396f, 398f Lankascincus, 568 Lanthanotidae, 558f, 580, 581 Lanthanotinae, 581f­582f Lanthanotus, 556, 557, 581 Lanthanotus borneensis, 581, 582f Lanzarana, 507 Lapemis, 620 Lapparentophis, 111 Lapparentophis defrennei, 111 Larutia, 568 Latastia, 572 Laterata, 372f­373f Laticauda, 598­599, 620, 621 Laticauda colubrina, 279, 621, 621f Latimeria, 18f Latonia, 92 Laudakia, 585 Laurentophryne, 491 Lechriodus, 482 Leiocephalidae, 558f, 588, 589f Leiocephalus, 404f, 588 Leiocephalus eremitus, 431t­432t Leiocephalus herminieri, 431t­432t Leioheterodon madagascariensis, 618f Leiolepidinae, 291, 296, 298, 584, 585, 585f, 586 Leiolepis, 404f, 585, 586 Leiolepis boehemi, 137t­138t Leiolepis guentherpetersi, 137t­138t Leiolepis guttata, 585f Leiolepis triploidea, 137t­138t Leiolopisma, 568 Leiolopisma mauritiana, 431t­432t Leiopelma, 59­60, 92, 473 Leiopelma archeyi, 473­475 Leiopelma auroraensis, 431t­432t Leiopelma hamiltoni, 265, 473­475 Leiopelma hochstetteri, 473­475 Leiopelma markhami, 431t­432t Leiopelma pakeka, 473­475 Leiopelma waitomoensis, 431t­432t Leiopelmatidae, 25f, 92, 93t, 126t, 175, 431t­432t, 472­475, 473f­474f Leiopython, 605 Leiosauridae, 592­593 Leiosaurus, 558f, 592­593, 593f Leiuperidae, 93t, 193t, 241, 261, 473f, 484­485, 485f Lepidobatrachus, 188, 221, 332, 496­497 Lepidobatrachus laevis, 327f, 332­333 Lepidobatrachus llanensis, 188, 189f Lepidoblepharis, 562 Lepidoblepharis festae, 391f Lepidoblepharis xanthostigma, 391f Lepidochelys, 531 Lepidochelys kempii, 23­24, 430t Lepidochelys olivacea, 531­532 Lepidodactylus, 3­4, 137t­138t, 562 Lepidodactylus gardineri, 430t Lepidodactylus lugubris, 137t­138t, 562 Lepidophyma, 140­141, 565­566 Lepidophyma flavimaculatum, 566f Lepidophyma flavimaculatus, 137t­138t Lepidophyma reticulatum, 137t­138t Lepidophyma smithii, 312t Lepidosauria, 5­7, 5t, 19t, 21, 21f, 103, 107, 107t­108t, 292, 357f, 372f, 565, 599­601, 603­608, 610­611, 614, 620, 622.

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It outcome of|as a result of} of}: -Overuse of grammatical phrases -Erroneous number of grammatical phrases -Absence of defining limits of the sentences Repetition the flexibility to erectile dysfunction causes lower back pain cheap sildalis 120mg fast delivery repeat represents one of the major parts in aphasia classification impotence statistics discount sildalis. Impaired repetition capacity: Perisylvian aphasias Furthermore impotence at 18 purchase sildalis pills in toronto, it has been proposed that the flexibility to repeat represents a significant criterion for aphasia classification. However, the particular characteristic of the naming defect can be considerably different in numerous aphasia groups. With this broad meaning of the word, all aphasic patients may present anomia, precise fact} that|although} the deficit can be manifested in quite other ways. This kind of language disturbance normally corresponds to so-called anomic, amnesic or nominal aphasia. A linguistic interpretation of aphasias Jakobson (1964, 1971; Jakobson & Halle, 1956) emphasized that there are two basic linguistic operations: selecting (language as paradigm) and sequencing (language as syntagm). A patient may lose the flexibility to use language in two quite other ways: the language impairment can be situated on the paradigmatic axis (similarity disorder) or the syntagmatic axis (contiguity disorder). These aphasic patients have severely limited entry to this language repertoire system. Words no longer have a generic (paradigmatic) meaning for these patients, and speech turns into empty. Aphasia Handbook 57 Aphasic individuals presenting with what Jakobson referred to as contiguity disorder (Broca-type aphasia), on the other hand|however|then again}, lose the flexibility to mix linguistic parts. Words with purely grammatical capabilities (such as articles and prepositions) are likely to|are inclined to} be omitted. These patients thus are likely to|are inclined to} use only very brief sentences containing mostly meaningful phrases (nouns). Luria emphasized that the choice disorder can be noticed at different ranges of language, similar to different aphasia subtypes: phoneme choice (aphasia acoustic agnosic), word choice (aphasia acoustic amnesic), and meaning choice (amnesic aphasia). Summary Human language is a communication system characterised by a "double articulation". Different ranges of research of the language can be distinguished: phonetic, phonemic, morphemic, morphosyntactic (grammatical), semantic, and pragmatic. Patients with aphasia present numerous types of language deviations, including, phonetic deviations, phonological (literal) paraphasias, verbal paraphasias, syntagmatic paraphasias, circumlocutions, neologisms, jargon, agrammatism, and paragrammatism. The capacity to repeat is a significant component in aphasia classification: patients with perisylvian aphasias have repetition disturbances, whereas patients with extrasylvian (transcortical) aphasias have a normal or close to normal repetition capacity. It has been proposed that different mechanisms may underlie repetition deficits in aphasia. It has been emphasized that there are two elementary linguistic operations, and aphasia tends to contain considered one of two types of linguistic deficiency. Language deviations in aphasia: A frequency analysis Brain and Language, 44, 165-180. These two major aphasic syndromes have been associated to the 2 basic linguistic operations: selecting (language as paradigm) and sequencing (language as syntagm) (Jakobson, 1971; Jakobson & Halle, 1956; Luria, 1972/1983). Jakobson (1964) proposed that aphasia tends to contain considered one of two types of linguistic deficiency. In the primary one the disturbance is situated at the lexical/ semantic level, whereas in the second case, the disturbance corresponds to a grammatical impairment. Aphasia Handbook 61 In this chapter these two major (primary) aphasic syndromes will be examined. In the following chapter, different aphasia syndromes corresponding to conduction aphasia, aphasia of the supplementary motor area, and extrasylvian (transcortical) aphasias will be analyzed. Noteworthy, a major proportion of aphasias noticed in medical settings ­probably 30%-50%- corresponds to blended types of aphasia, although a selected kind of aphasia may predominate. In Wernicke-type aphasia, evidently the language deficit is situated at the level of language sounds (phonemes) and meaningful phrases (nouns). Phoneme and word choice are poor, but language syntax (contiguity: sequencing elements) is nicely preserved and even overused. Often further syllables in phrases and extra phrases in sentences are discovered; this excessive quantity of language and not using a|with no} clear meaning is referred as logorrhea. Because of the relative absence of meaningful phrases (so called "empty speech") and the excessive language output, an overuse of grammatical phrases ­ incessantly incorrectly selected) is discovered, this phenomenon recognized as|is called|is named} paragrammatism (or dyssyntaxis). They can be both phonological and verbal, precise fact} that|although} phonological or verbal paraphasia can predominate in a specific patient.